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Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS)

What is assertiveness?

In the broadest sense of the word, assertiveness is the ability of an individual to be in harmony with themselves and the people around them, to feel confident regardless of the circumstances. Assertiveness helps a person to stand up for their rights and values, while not infringing upon other people’s rights and respecting them. This is the ability to express one’s desires and thoughts, to say "no", to protect personal boundaries, but at the same time to maintain a positive mood, not to be aggressive and not try to manipulate others.

Research shows that the level of assertiveness correlates with the level of general psychological health and self-esteem. If a person has high self-esteem and is psychologically healthy, then, most likely, they will have a high level of assertiveness, and vice versa. Assertive behavior is often viewed as the perfect balance between passivity and aggression and is a very demanded quality in the modern business world.

Many specialists consider assertiveness a necessary personality trait for a healthy and happy life.

Rathus Assertiveness Schedule

In 1973, Spencer Rathus proposed his own questionnaire called the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, or RAS, to measure assertiveness. Contemporary researchers have criticized RAS for its positive associations with aggression in the test results scoring, and for the marked heterosexual basis of some statements. At the same time, studies recognize its high test-retest reliability and validity of the results.


You will be offered 30 statements, read each statement very carefully and indicate how well each item describes you.

Note this test is intended strictly for informational, educational and entertainment purposes; its results cannot replace the real help of a specialist and should not be used for making any decision.

1. Most people seem to be more aggressive and assertive than I am.
2. I have hesitated to make or accept dates because of shyness.
3. When the food serves at a restaurant is not done to my satisfaction, I complain about it to the waiter or waitress.
4. I am careful to avoid hurting other people’s feelings, even when I feel that I have been injured.
5. If a salesperson has gone to considerable trouble to show me merchandise that is not quite suitable, I have a difficult time saying “No.”
6. When I am asked to do something, I insist upon knowing why.
7. There are times when I look for a good, vigorous argument.
8. I strive to get ahead as well as most people in my position.
9. To be honest, people often take advantage of me.
10. I enjoy starting conversations with new acquaintances or strangers.
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